Osamu Sawada MD, Masahito Ohji MD, in Retinal Pharmacotherapy, 2010
Retinal vein occlusion (RVO), one of the most frequently occurring retinal vascular disorders in elderly patients, develops predominantly in individuals over age 65 years.1–3 RVO generally is classified into central RVO (CRVO) and branch RVO (BRVO) according to the site of blockage in the retinal vein. CRVO is divided further into nonischemic and ischemic types according to the perfusion status based on fluorescein angiography. Ischemic CRVO is associated with greater than 10 disc areas in diameter of retinal capillary nonperfusion on fluorescein angiography.4 Ocular vascular leakage, retinal and iris neovascularization, and intractable elevation of the intraocular pressure may result from progression of ischemic CRVO. Large areas of retinal capillary nonperfusion in BRVO may develop neovascularization followed by vitreous hemorrhage. Macular edema is the major complication of significant visual loss in patients with CRVO and BRVO, and various treatments have been used to improve macular edema and cause regression of intraocular neovascularization. Recent pharmacologic agents primarily have targeted the improvement of macular edema secondary to CRVO and BRVO.5–15
Sohan Singh Hayreh, in Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, 2017
Retinal vein occlusion is the most common retinal vascular occlusive disorder. Generally, there is a tendency to regard this as one disease which is not only incorrect but also causes much confusion. From the point of view of pathogenesis, clinical picture, prognosis and management, retinal vein occlusion in fact consists of the following six distinct clinical entities.
Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO): This comprises
Hemi-central retinal vein occlusion (HCRVO): This also comprises
Branch retinal vein occlusion: This consists of
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